A spokesman said the fire service had received an emergency call at the site of the old Intourist Hotel, where builders are putting up a new guest complex, within walking distance of the Kremlin and Red Square.
"Firefighters who arrived at the scene saw insulation burning between the second and the third floors of the nine-story building," the ministry said. "The fire was put out at 10:43 a.m. Moscow time (06:43 a.m. GMT). No one was hurt."
A team is investigating what may have caused the blaze.