Air Commodore Julian Ball, the UK Royal Air Force (RAF) assistant chief of staff for capability and force development, claimed that the alleged threat from missile systems such as the Russian S-400 air defence system and similar systems required a response, Jane's 360 reported Wednesday.
“Our access to future operational environments is being challenged [...] This is our collective endeavour", Ball said, cited by the Jane's 360.
In March 2019, the Pentagon alleged that Russia was expanding its anti-access area-denial (A2/AD) capabilities in the Baltic Sea and Black Sea regions.
According to military experts, A2/AD technology is designed to deny an adversary’s freedom of movement on the battlefield. Large anti-access/area-denial exclusion zones are known in military jargon as 'bubbles' or 'missile bubbles'.
The so-called bubbles allow the user to deny any access to airspace in these areas and significantly constrain the ability of an adversary during active combat.