Syria’s energy ministry estimates that Washington and its Kurdish allies control as much as 90 percent of the country’s oil-producing regions. Unlike many of its neighbours, Syria is not a major oil exporter. Nevertheless, before war broke out in 2011, the country produced enough oil and gas to ensure its energy self-sufficiency
, and exported some resources in exchange for hard currency. The country was also one of the few nations in the Middle East to secure food self-sufficiency.
That too evaporated with the war and US-Kurdish militia's occupation of the country’s northeastern breadbasket. The country’s food and energy deficits have been ameliorated by Russian and Iranian emergency aid
, with Moscow delivering hundreds of thousands of tonnes of wheat supplies and Tehran providing fuel via tanker ships which first have to make the treacherous journey from the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean to the Eastern Mediterranean.